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About University of Delhi

What is University?

University is an institution for providing high level education where academic research is done. Students attain different degrees like BTech., MTech. B.A, M.A., PhD etc. after the completion of their respective courses. Students go to university after completing their class 12th.

University of Delhi

The University of Delhi is a public central university of India. It was founded in 1922 by an Act of the Central Legislative Assembly in Delhi. It is funded by the Indian government. The Vice President is the Chancellor of the university. It ranks first among Indian universities as per India Today.


Faculties & Departments

Currently there are 16 faculties, 86 departments, 77 colleges and 5 other important institutes located in Delhi, with 132435 regular students and 261169 students in non-formal education programme.

1. Faculty of Arts: It includes 14 departments including Persian, Urdu, Sanskrit, Buddhist Studies, Philosophy, Punjabi, Hindi, English, Linguistics, Library and Information Science, etc.
2. Faculty of Law: It has LL.B and LL.M.
3. Faculty of Science: It has 10 departments namely environmental studies, geology, home science, nursing, pharmacy, zoology, physics, astrophysics, anthropology, botany & chemistry,.
4. Faculty of Social Sciences: It has 9 departments that are Adult Continuing Education & Extension, African Studies, East Asian Studies, Social Work, Political Science, Geography, Sociology, Economics and History Faculty of Education
5. Faculty of Applied Social Sciences and Humanities
6. Faculty of Commerce and Business Studies
7. Faculty of Interdisciplinary and Applied Sciences
8. Faculty of Management Studies
9. Faculty of Mathematical Sciences
10. Faculty of Medical Sciences
11. Faculty of Music and Fine Arts
12. Faculty of Open Learning
13. Faculty of Technology
14. Faculty of Ayurvedic & Unani Medicine
15. Faculty of Faculty of Homeopathic Medicine

List of colleges affiliated with Delhi University

1. Acharya Narendra Dev College
2. Aditi Mahavidyalaya
3. Ahilyabai College of Nursing
4. Amar Jyoti Institute of Physiotherapy
5. Atma Ram Sanatan Dharma College
6. Ayussrvedic & Unani Tibbia College
7. Bhagini Nivedita College
8. Bharati College
9. Bhaskraycharya College of Applied Sciences
10. Bhim Rao Ambedkar College
11. College of Arts
12. College of Pharmacy
13. College of Vocational Studies
14. Cluster Innovation Centre[1][dead link]
15. Daulat Ram College
16. Deen Dayal Upadhayaya College
17. Delhi College of Arts and Commerce
18. Delhi School of Economics
19. Department of Business Economics, University of Delhi-South Campus
20. Department of East Asian Studies, University of Delhi
21. Deshbandhu College
22. Ramanujam College(formerly Deshbandhu evening)
23. Dyal Singh College, Delhi
24. Dyal Singh College (Evening)
25. Faculty of Law (Campus Law Centre, Law Centre-I, Law centre-II)
26. Faculty of Management Studies
27. Gargi College
28. Hans Raj College
29. Hindu College
30. Indira Gandhi Institute of Physical Education and Sports Sciences
31. Indraprastha College for Women
32. Institute of Informatics and Communication
33. Institute of Home Economics
34. Janki Devi Memorial College
35. Jesus & Mary College
36. Kalindi College
37. Kamala Nehru College
38. Keshav Mahavidyalaya
39. Kirori Mal College
40. Lady Hardinge Medical College
41. Lady Irwin College
42. Lady Shri Ram College for Women
43. Lakshmi Bai College
44. Maharaja Agrasen College
45. Maharishi Valmiki College of Education
46. Maitreyi College
47. Mata Sundri College for Women
48. Maulana Azad Medical College
49. Miranda House
50. Motilal Nehru College
51. Moti Lal Nehru College (Evening)
52. Nehru Homeopathic College
53. Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology (Faculty of Technology)
54. Pannalal Girdharlal Dayanand Anglo Vaidic College
55. Pannalal Girdharlal Dayanand Anglo Vaidic College (Evening)
56. Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya Institute for the Physically Handicapped
57. Rajdhani College
58. Rajkumari Amrit Kaur College of Nursing
59. Ram Lal Anand College
60. Ram Lal Anand College (Evening)
61. Ramjas College
62. Satyawati College
63. Satyawati College (Evening)
64. School of Open Learning
65. Shahid Bhagat Singh College
66. Shahid Bhagat Singh College (Evening)
67. Shaheed Rajguru College of Applied Sciences for Women
68. Shaheed Sukhdev College of Business Studies
69. Sherubtse College
70. Shivaji College
71. Shri Ram College of Commerce
72. Shyam Lal College
73. Shyam Lal College (Evening)
74. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee College
75. Sri Aurobindo College
76. Sri Aurboindo College (Evening)
77. Sri Guru Gobind Singh College of Commerce
78. Sri Guru Nanak Dev Khalsa College
79. Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Khalsa College
80. Sri Venkateswara College
81. St. Stephen’s College, Delhi
82. Swami Shraddhanand College
83. University College of Medical Sciences
84. Vivekananda College, Delhi
85. Zakir Husain Delhi College

5 Reasons to Take Summer Classes


Like working out or cleaning your room, taking summer classes is one of those things that college students know they should do, but would rather not. It’s understandable – after all, it’s called summer vacation for a reason. Truth be told, though, there are summer classes that only meet once or twice per week as well as courses that are offered online, so it’s not like you have to waste your summer away in a classroom. Plus, there are a lot of benefits to enrolling in these courses.

Here are a few ways that taking one or two summer classes will allow present-you to make future-you really happy.

Get Ahead on your Degree
If you take just one to two summer class between each school year, you’ll get to reap the benefits come senior year. You can either take a really light course load for your final year, or you could even graduate a semester early since you’ll be ahead on your credits. Both are really beneficial if you’re considering taking on an intensive internship or wanting to put all your focus on your thesis. Plus, you can use your free time to begin the job search.

Enjoy a Short Semester
Not only will that summer class make your course load lighter toward the end of your college career, but it’ll be done in a shorter time frame. Typically, summer semesters are only ten-ish weeks, while a traditional semester is closer to sixteen. It’s more efficient!

Smaller Classes
Summer courses are a great tome to take advantage of one-on-one time with your professor. Usually, these courses have a smaller maximum capacity (and fewer students sign up for them anyway). Whether you’re in the classroom or taking a college course online, fewer students means the professor is less inundated with e-mails, questions, and requests. Enjoy more thorough and rapid feedback for a semester that goes more smoothly.

Get a Seat in Desirable Classes
There’s nothing worse than refreshing the class enrollment page, trying to get a spot in that class you need to graduate, only to find that it filled up while your internet was slow. The summer is a great time to take those classes and get them out of the way, since fewer students will be in a big rush to sign up for these ones.

Fewer Distractions
While on-campus during the school year, there are football games, parties, and lots of horsing around to distract you. It’s hard to say ‘no’ when your roommate asks you to go for a game of volleyball or everyone on your floor is going to watch the sororities have canoe races. In the summer, though, there’s hardly anyone on campus and you’ll be likely to get better grades.

Outdoor Studying!
One cool thing about studying in summer is – duh – the fact that it’s summer! Somehow, studying seems a lot more tolerable when you’re not huddled up in a chair in the library. Take your textbook to the beach for some exam review or treat yourself to a picnic while outlining a paper. Better yet, go swimming as a reward for getting all your work done.

Appease your Parents
As soon as you come home for the summer or your classes let out, your parents ask the dreaded question: “So what are you going to do all summer?” They’ll be impressed and less likely to pressure you into picking up more hours at work.

Civil Services Mains exam syllabus: Zoology

Zoology for IAS Main Examination 2014


1. Non-chordata and Chordata:

(a) Classification and relationship of various phyla up to subclasses: Acoelomate and Coelomate, Protostomes and Deuterostomes, Bilateria and Radiata; Status of Protista, Parazoa, Onychophora and Hemichordata; Symmetry.

(b) Protozoa: Locomotion, nutrition, reproduction, sex; General features and life history of Paramaecium, Monocystis, Plasmodium and Leishmania.

(c) Porifera: Skeleton, canal system and reproduction.

(d) Cnidaria: Polymorphism, defensive structures and their mechanism; coral reefs and their formation; metagenesis; general features and life history of Obelia and Aurelia.

(e) Platyhelminthes: Parasitic adaptation; general features and life history of Fasciola and Taenia and their pathogenic symptoms.

(f) Nemathelminthes: General features, life history, parasitic adaptation of Ascaris and Wuchereria.

(g) Annelida: Coelom and metamerism; modes of life in polychaetes; general features and life history of Nereis, earthworm and leach.

(h) Arthropoda: Larval forms and parasitism in Crustacea; vision and respiration in arthropods (Prawn, cockroach and scorpion); modification of mouth parts in insects (cockroach, mosquito, housefly, honey bee and butterfly); metamorphosis in insect and its hormonal regulation, social behaviour of Apis and termites.

(i) Mollusca: Feeding, respiration, locomotion, general features and life history of Lamellidens, Pila and Sepia, torsion and detorsion in gastropods.

(j) Echinodermata: Feeding, respiration, locomotion, larval forms, general features and life history of Asterias.

(k) Protochordata: Origin of chordates; general features and life history of Branchiostoma and Herdmania.

(l) Pisces: Respiration, locomotion and migration.

(m) Amphibia: Origin of tetrapods, parental care, paedomorphosis.

(n) Reptilia; Origin of reptiles, skull types, status of Sphenodon and crocodiles.

(o) Aves: Origin of birds, flight adaptation, migration.

(p) Mammalia: Origin of mammals, dentition, general features of egg laying mammals, pouched-mammals, aquatic mammals and primates, endocrine glands (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads) and their interrelationships.

(q) Comparative functional anatomy of various systems of vertebrates (integument and its derivatives, endoskeleton, locomotory organs, digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system including heart and aortic arches, urino-genital system, brain and sense organs (eye and ear).

2. Ecology:

(a) Biosphere: Concept of biosphere; biomes, Biogeochemical cycles, Human induced changes in atmosphere including green house effect, ecological succession, biomes and ecotones, community ecology.

(b) Concept of ecosystem; structure and function of ecosystem, types of ecosystem, ecological succession, ecological adaptation.

(c) Population; characteristics, population dynamics, population stabilization.

(d) Biodiversity and diversity conservation of natural resources.

(e) Wildlife of India.

(f) Remote sensing for sustainable development.

(g) Environmental biodegradation, pollution and its impact on biosphere and its prevention.

3. Ethology:

(a) Behaviour: Sensory filtering, reponsiveness, sign stimuli, learning and memory, instinct, habituation, conditioning, imprinting.

(b) Role of hormones in drive; role of pheromones in alarm spreading; crypsis, predator detection, predator tactics, social hierarchies in primates, social organization in insects.

(c) Orientation, navigation, homing, biological rhythms, biological clock, tidal, seasonal and circadian rhythms.

(d) Methods of studying animal behaviour including sexual conflict, selfishness, kinship and altruism.

4. Economic Zoology:

(a) Apiculture, sericulture, lac culture, carp culture, pearl culture, prawn culture, vermiculture.

(b) Major infectious and communicable diseases (malaria, filaria, tuberculosis, cholera and AIDS) their vectors, pathogens and prevention.

(c) Cattle and livestock diseases, their pathogen (helminthes) and vectors (ticks, mites, Tabanus, Stomoxys).

(d) Pests of sugar cane (Pyrilla perpusiella) oil seed (Achaea janata) and rice (Sitophilus oryzae).

(e) Transgenic animals.

(f) Medical biotechnology, human genetic disease and genetic counselling, gene therapy.

(g) Forensic biotechnology.

5. Biostatistics:

Designing of experiments; null hypothesis; correlation, regression, distribution and measure of central tendency, chi square, student-test, F-test (one-way & two-way F-test).

6. Instrumentation Methods:

(a) Spectrophotometer, phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy, radioactive tracer, ultra centrifuge, gel electrophoresis, PCR, ELISA, FISH and chromosome painting.

(b) Electron microscopy (TEM, SEM).

1. Cell Biology:

(a) Structure and function of cell and its organelles (nucleus, plasma membrane, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, and lysosomes), cell division (mitosis and meiosis), mitotic spindle and mitotic apparatus, chromosome movements, chromosome type polytene and lambrush, organization of chromatin, heterochromatin, Cell cycle regulation.

(b) Nucleic acid topology, DNA motif, DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, translation, protein foldings and transport.

2. Genetics:

(a) Modern concept of gene, split gene, genetic regulation, genetic code.

(b) Sex chromosomes and their evolution, sex determination in Drosophila and man.

(c) Mendel’s laws of inheritance, recombination, linkage, multiple alleles, genetics of blood groups, pedigree analysis, hereditary diseases in man.

(d) Mutations and mutagenesis.

(e) Recombinant DNA technology; plasmid, cosmid, artificial chromosomes as vectors, transgenic, DNA cloning and whole animal cloning (principles and methods).

(f) Gene regulation and expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

(g) Signal molecules, cell death, defects in signaling pathway and consequences.

(h) RFLP, RAPD and AFLP and application of RFLP in DNA finger printing, ribozyme technologies, human genome project, genomics and protomics.

3. Evolution:

(a) Theories of origin of life.

(b) Theories of evolution; Natural selection, role of mutations in evolution, evolutionary patterns, molecular drive, mimicry, variation, isolation and speciation.

(c) Evolution of horse, elephant and man using fossil data.

(d) Hardy-Weinberg Law.

(e) Continental drift and distribution of animals.

4. Systematics: Zoological nomenclature, international code, cladistics, molecular taxonomy and biodiversity.

5. Biochemistry:

(a) Structure and role of carbohydrates, fats, fatty acids and cholesterol, proteins and amino-acids, nucleic acids. Bioenergetics.

b) Glycolysis and Kreb cycle, oxidation and reduction, oxidative phosphorylation, energy conservation and release, ATP cycle, cyclic AMP – its structure and role.

(c) Hormone classification (steroid and peptide hormones), biosynthesis and functions.

(d) Enzymes: types and mechanisms of action.

(e) Vitamins and co-enzymes

(f) Immunoglobulin and immunity.

6. Physiology (with special reference to mammals):

(a) Composition and constituents of blood; blood groups and Rh factor in man, factors and mechanism of coagulation, iron metabolism, acid-base balance, thermo-regulation, anticoagulants.

(b) Haemoglobin: Composition, types and role in transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

(c) Digestion and absorption: Role of salivary glands, liver, pancreas and intestinal glands.

(d) Excretion: nephron and regulation of urine formation; osmo-regulation and excretory product

(e) Muscles: Types, mechanism of contraction of skeletal muscles, effects of exercise on muscles.

(f) Neuron: nerve impulse – its conduction and synaptic transmission, neurotransmitters.

(g) Vision, hearing and olfaction in man.

(h) Physiology of reproduction, puberty and menopause in human. 7. Developmental Biology:

(a) Gametogenesis; spermatogenesis, composition of semen, in vitro and in vivo capacitation of mammalian sperm, Oogenesis, totipotency; fertilization, morphogenesis and morphogen, blastogenesis, establishment of body axes formation, fate map, gestulation in frog and chick; genes in development in chick, homeotic genes, development of eye and heart, placenta in mammals.

(b) Cell lineage, cell-to cell interaction, Genetic and induced teratogenesis, role of thyroxine in control of metamorphosis in amphibia, paedogenesis and neoteny, cell death, aging.

(c) Developmental genes in man, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, cloning.

(d) Stem cells: Sources, types and their use in human welfare.

(e) Biogenetic law.

Civil Services Mains exam syllabus: Statistics

Statistics for IAS Main Examination 2014


1. Probability:

Sample space and events, probability measure and probability space, random variable as a measurable function, distribution function of a random variable, discrete and continuous-type random variable, probability mass function, probability density function, vector-valued random variable, marginal and conditional distributions, stochastic independence of events and of random variables, expectation and moments of a random variable, conditional expectation, convergence of a sequence of random variable in distribution, in probability, in p-th mean and almost everywhere, their criteria and inter-relations, Chebyshev’s inequality and Khintchine‘s weak law of large numbers, strong law of large numbers and Kolmogoroff’s theorems, probability generating function, moment generating function, characteristic function, inversion theorem, Linderberg and Levy forms of central limit theorem, standard discrete and continuous probability distributions.

2. Statistical Inference:

Consistency, unbiasedness, efficiency, sufficiency, completeness, ancillary statistics, factorization theorem, exponential family of distribution and its properties, uniformly minimum variance unbiased (UMVU) estimation, Rao-Blackwell and Lehmann-Scheffe theorems, Cramer-Rao inequality for single parameter. Estimation by methods of moments, maximum likelihood, least squares, minimum chi-square and modified minimum chi-square, properties of maximum likelihood and other estimators, asymptotic efficiency, prior and posterior distributions, loss function, risk function, and minimax estimator. Bayes estimators.

Non-randomised and randomised tests, critical function, MP tests, Neyman-Pearson lemma, UMP tests, monotone likelihood ratio, similar and unbiased tests, UMPU tests for single parameter likelihood ratio test and its asymptotic distribution. Confidence bounds and its relation with tests.

Kolmogoroff’s test for goodness of fit and its consistency, sign test and its optimality. Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and its consistency, Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test, run test, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test and median test, their consistency and asymptotic normality.

Wald’s SPRT and its properties, OC and ASN functions for tests regarding parameters for Bernoulli, Poisson, normal and exponential distributions. Wald’s fundamental identity.

3. Linear Inference and Multivariate Analysis:

Linear statistical models’, theory of least squares and analysis of variance, Gauss-Markoff theory, normal equations, least squares estimates and their precision, test of significance and interval estimates based on least squares theory in one-way, two-way and three-way classified data, regression analysis, linear regression, curvilinear regression and orthogonal polynomials, multiple regression, multiple and partial correlations, estimation of variance and covariance components, multivariate normal distribution, Mahalanobis-D2 and Hotelling’s T2 statistics and their applications and properties, discriminant analysis, canonical correlations, principal component analysis.

4. Sampling Theory and Design of Experiments:

An outline of fixed-population and super-population approaches, distinctive features of finite population sampling, probability sampling designs, simple random sampling with and without replacement, stratified random sampling, systematic sampling and its efficacy , cluster sampling, two-stage and multi-stage sampling, ratio and regression methods of estimation involving one or more auxiliary variables, two-phase sampling, probability proportional to size sampling with and without replacement, the Hansen-Hurwitz and the Horvitz-Thompson estimators, non-negative variance estimation with reference to the Horvitz-Thompson estimator, non-sampling errors.

Fixed effects model (two-way classification) random and mixed effects models (two-way classification with equal observation per cell), CRD, RBD, LSD and their analyses, incomplete block designs, concepts of orthogonality and balance, BIBD, missing plot technique, factorial experiments and 2n and 32, confounding in factorial experiments, split-plot and simple lattice designs, transformation of data Duncan’s multiple range test.

1. Industrial Statistics:

Process and product control, general theory of control charts, different types of control charts for variables and attributes, X, R, s, p, np and c charts, cumulative sum chart. Single, double, multiple and sequential sampling plans for attributes, OC, ASN, AOQ and ATI curves, concepts of producer’s and consumer’s risks, AQL, LTPD and AOQL, Sampling plans for variables, Use of Dodge-Roming tables.

Concept of reliability, failure rate and reliability functions, reliability of series and parallel systems and other simple configurations, renewal density and renewal function, Failure models: exponential, Weibull, normal , lognormal.

Problems in life testing, censored and truncated experiments for exponential models.

2. Optimization Techniques:

Different types of models in Operations Research, their construction and general methods of solution, simulation and Monte-Carlo methods formulation of linear programming (LP) problem, simple LP model and its graphical solution, the simplex procedure, the two-phase method and the M-technique with artificial variables, the duality theory of LP and its economic interpretation, sensitivity analysis, transportation and assignment problems, rectangular games, two-person zero-sum games, methods of solution (graphical and algebraic).

Replacement of failing or deteriorating items, group and individual replacement policies, concept of scientific inventory management and analytical structure of inventory problems, simple models with deterministic and stochastic demand with and without lead time, storage models with particular reference to dam type.

Homogeneous discrete-time Markov chains, transition probability matrix, classification of states and ergodic theorems, homogeneous continuous-time Markov chains, Poisson process, elements of queuing theory, M/M/1, M/M/K, G/M/1 and M/G/1 queues.

Solution of statistical problems on computers using well-known statistical software packages like SPSS.

3. Quantitative Economics and Official Statistics:

Determination of trend, seasonal and cyclical components, Box-Jenkins method, tests for stationary series, ARIMA models and determination of orders of autoregressive and moving average components, forecasting.

Commonly used index numbers-Laspeyre’s, Paasche’s and Fisher’s ideal index numbers, chain-base index number, uses and limitations of index numbers, index number of wholesale prices, consumer prices, agricultural production and industrial production, test for index numbers – proportionality, time-reversal, factor-reversal and circular .

General linear model, ordinary least square and generalized least squares methods of estimation, problem of multicollinearity, consequences and solutions of multicollinearity, autocorrelation and its consequences, heteroscedasticity of disturbances and its testing, test for independence of disturbances, concept of structure and model for simultaneous equations, problem of identification-rank and order conditions of identifiability, two-stage least square method of estimation.

Present official statistical system in India relating to population, agriculture, industrial production, trade and prices, methods of collection of official statistics, their reliability and limitations, principal publications containing such statistics, various official agencies responsible for data collection and their main functions.

4. Demography and Psychometry: Demographic data from census, registration, NSS other surveys, their limitations and uses, definition, construction and uses of vital rates and ratios, measures of fertility, reproduction rates, morbidity rate, standardized death rate, complete and abridged life tables, construction of life tables from vital statistics and census returns, uses of life tables, logistic and other population growth curves, fitting a logistic curve, population projection, stable population, quasi-stable population, techniques in estimation of demographic parameters, standard classification by cause of death, health surveys and use of hospital statistics.

Civil Services Mains exam syllabus: Sociology

Sociology for IAS Main Examination 2014


1. Sociology – The Discipline:
Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of sociology.
Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.
Sociology and common sense.
2. Sociology as Science:
Science, scientific method and critique.
Major theoretical strands of research methodology.
Positivism and its critique.
Fact value and objectivity.
Non- positivist methodologies.
3. Research Methods and Analysis:
Qualitative and quantitative methods.
Techniques of data collection.
Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.
4. Sociological Thinkers:
Kar l Marx- Histor ical mater ial ism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.
Emile Durkheim- Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.
Max Weber- Social action, ideal types, author i ty, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
Talcolt Parsons- Social system, pattern variables.
Robert K. Merton- Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups.
Mead – Self and identity.
5. Stratification and Mobility:
Concepts- equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation.
Theories of social stratification- Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.
Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race.
Social mobility- open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.
6. Works and Economic Life:
Social organization of work in different types of society- slave society, feudal society, industrial /capitalist society.
Formal and informal organization of work.
Labour and society.
7. Politics and Society:
Sociological theories of power.
Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups, and political parties.
Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.
Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.
8. Religion and Society:
Sociological theories of religion.
Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.
Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.
9. Systems of Kinship:
Family, household, marriage.
Types and forms of family.
Lineage and descent.
Patriarchy and sexual division oflabour.
Contemporary trends.
10. Social Change in Modern Society:
Sociological theories of social change.
Development and dependency.
Agents of social change.
Education and social change.
Science, technology and social change.
A. Introducing Indian Society:

(i) Perspectives on the study of Indian society:
Indology (GS. Ghurye).
Structural functionalism (M N Srinivas).
Marxist sociology (A R Desai).
(ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :
Social background of Indian nationalism.
Modernization of Indian tradition.
Protests and movements during the colonial period.
Social reforms.
B. Social Structure:
(i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:
The idea of Indian village and village studies.
Agrarian social structure – evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.
(ii) Caste System:
Perspectives on the study of caste systems: GS Ghurye, M N Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.
Features of caste system.
Untouchability – forms and perspectives.
(iii) Tribal communities in India:
Definitional problems.
Geographical spread.
Colonial policies and tribes.
Issues of integration and autonomy. (iv) Social Classes in India:
Agrarian class structure.
Industrial class structure.
Middle classes in India.
(v) Systems of Kinship in India:
Lineage and descent in India.
Types of kinship systems.
Family and marriage in India.
Household dimensions of the family.
. (vi) Religion and Society:
Religious communities in India.
Problems of religious minorities.
C. Social Changes in India:
(i) Visions of Social Change in India:
Idea of development planning and mixed economy.
Constitution, law and social change.
Education and social change.
(ii) Rural and Agrarian transformation in India:
Programmes of rural development, Commu n i t y De v e l o pme n t P r o g r a – mme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes.
Green revolution and social change.
Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture .
Problems of rural labour, bondage,migration.
(iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:
Evolution of modern industry in India.
Growth of urban settlements in India.
Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.
Informal sector, child labour.
Slums and deprivation in urban areas.
(iv) Politics and Society:
Nation, democracy and citizenship.
Political parties, pressure groups , social and political elite.
Regionalism and decentralization of power.
(v) Social Movements in Modern India:
Peasants and farmers movements.
Women’s movement.
Backward classes & Dalit movement.
Environmental movements.
Ethnicity and Identity movements.
(vi) Population Dynamics:
Population size, growth, composition and distribution.
Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.
Population policy and family planning.
Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.
(vii) Challenges of Social Transformation:
Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.
Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.
Violence against women.
Caste conflicts.
Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.
Illiteracy and disparities in education.