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Civil Services Mains exam syllabus: Medical Science

Medical Science Syllabus for IAS Main Examination 2014


1. Human Anatomy:

Applied anatomy including blood and nerve supply of upper and lower limbs and joints of shoulder, hip and knee.

Gross anatomy, blood supply and lymphatic drainage of tongue, thyroid, mammary gland, stomach, liver, prostate, gonads and uterus

Applied anatomy of diaphragm, perineum and inguinal region.

Clinical anatomy of kidney, urinary bladder, uterine tubes, vas deferens.

Embryology: Placenta and placental barrier. Development of heart, gut, kidney, uterus, ovary, testis and their common congenital abnormalities.

Central and peripheral autonomic nervous system: Gross and clinical anatomy of ventricles of brain, circulation of cerebrospinal fluid; Neural pathways and lesions of cutaneous sensations, hearing and vision; Cranial nerves, distribution and clinical significance; Components of autonomic nervous system.

2. Human Physiology:

Conduction and transmission of impulse, mechanism of contraction, neuromuscular transmission, reflexes, control of equilibrium, posture and muscle tone, descending pathways, functions of cerebellum, basal ganglia, Physiology of sleep and consciousness.

Endocrine system: Mechanism of action of hormones, formation, secretion, transport, metabolism, function and regulation of secretion of pancreas and pituitary gland.

Physiology of reproductive system: menstrual cycle, lactation, pregnancy.

Blood: Development, regulation and fate of blood cells.

Cardio-vascular, cardiac output, blood pressure, regulation of cardiovascular functions;

3. Biochemistry:

Organ function tests-liver, kidney, thyroid

Protein synthesis.

Vitamins and minerals.

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Radio – immunoassays (RIA).

4. Pathology:

Inflammation and repair, disturbances of growth and cancer, Pathogenesis and histopathology of rheumatic and ischemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus. Differentiation between benign, malignant, primary and metastatic malignancies, Pathogenesis and histopathology of bronchogenic carcinoma, carcinoma breast, oral cancer, cancer cervix, leukemia, Etiology, pathogenesis and histopathology of – cirrhosis liver, glomerulonephritis, tuberculosis, acute osteomyelitis.

5. Microbiology:

Humoral and cell mediated immunity

Diseases caused by and laboratory diagnosis of-

· Meningococcus, Salmonella

· Shigella, Herpes, Dengue, Polio

· HIV/AIDS, Malaria, E. Histolytica, Giardia

· Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus

6. Pharmacology:

Mechanism of action and side effects of the following drugs

· Antipyretics and analgesics, Antibiotics, Antimalaria; Antikala-azar,Antidiabetics

· Antihypertensive, Antidiuretics, General and cardiac vasodilators, Antiviral, Antiparasitic, Antifungal, Immunosuppressants

· Anticancer

7. Forensic Medicine and Toxicology: Forensic examination of injuries and wounds; Examination of blood and seminal stains; poisoning, sedative overdose, hanging, drowning, burns, DNA and finger print study

1. General Medicine:

Etiology, clinical features, diagnosis and principles of management (including prevention) of: – Tetanus, Rabies, AIDS, Dengue, Kala-azar, Japanese Encephalitis.

Etiology, clinical features, diagnosis and principles of management of:

Ischaemic heart disease, pulmonary embolism.

Bronchial asthma.

Pleural effusion, tuberculosis, Malabsorption syndromes, acid peptic diseases, Viral hepatitis and cirrhosis of liver.

Glomerulonerphritis and pyelonephritis, renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, renovascular hypertension, complications of diabetes mellitus, coagulation disorders, leukemia, Hypo and hyper thyrodism, meningitis and encephalitis.

Imaging in medical problems, ultrasound, echocardiogram, CT scan, MRI.

Anxiety and Depressive Psychosis and schizophrenia and ECT.

2. Pediatrics:

Immunization, Baby friendly hospital, congenital cyanotic heart disease, respiratory distress syndrome, broncho – pneumonias, kernicterus. IMNCI classification and management, PEM grading and management. ARI and Diarrhea of under five and their management.

3. Dermatology:

Psoriasis, Allergic dermatitis, scabies, eczema, vitiligo, Stevan Johnson’s syndrome, Lichen Planus.

4. General Surgery:

Clinical features, causes, diagnosis and principles of management of cleft palate, harelip.

Laryngeal tumor, oral and esophageal tumors.

Peripheral arterial diseases, varicose veins, coarctation of aorta

Tumors of Thyroid, Adrenal Glands

Abscess, cancer, fibroadenoma and adenosis of breast.

Bleeding peptic ulcer, tuberculosis of bowel, ulcerative colitis, cancer stomach.

Renal mass,cancer Prostate..

Haemothorax, stones of Gall bladder, Kidney, Ureter and Urinary Bladder.

Management of surgical conditions of Rectum, Anus and Anal canal, Gall bladder and Bile ducts

Splenomegaly, cholecystitis, portal hypertension, liver abscess, peritonitis, carcinoma head of pancreas.

Fractures of spine, Colles’ fracture and bone tumors.


Laprascopic Surgery.

5. Obstetrics and Gynaecology including Family Planning:

Diagnosis of pregnancy.

Labour management, complications of 3rd stage, Antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage, resuscitation of the newborn, Management of abnormal lie and difficult labour, Management of small for date or premature newborn.

Diagnosis and management of anemia. Preeclampsia and Toxaemias of pregnancy, Management of Post menopausal Syndrome.

Intra-uterine devices, pills, tubectomy and vasectomy. Medical termination of pregnancy including legal aspects.

Cancer cervix.

Leucorrhoea, pelvic pain, infertility, dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB), amenorrhoea, Fibroid and prolapse of uterus.

6. Community Medicine (Preventive and Social Medicine):

Principles, methods, approach and measurements of Epidemiology

Nutrition, nutritional diseases / disorders & Nutrition Programmes.

Health information Collection, Analysis and Presentation.

Objectives, components and critical analysis of National programmes for control/eradication of:

Malaria, Kala-azar, Filaria and Tuberculosis,

HIV/AIDS, STDs and Dengue

Critical appraisal of Health care delivery system.

Health management and administration: Techniques, Tools, Programme Implementation and Evaluation.

Objective, Component, Goals and Status of Reproductive and Child Health, National Rural Health Mission and Millennium Development Goals

Management of hospital and industrial waste.

Civil Services Mains exam syllabus: Mechanical Engineering

Mechanical Engineering Syllabus for IAS Main Examination 2014


1. Mechanics:

1.1 Mechanics of rigid bodies:

Equations of equilibrium in space and its application; first and second moments of area; simple problems on friction; kinematics of particles for plane motion; elementary particle dynamics.

1.2 Mechanics of deformable bodies:

Generalized Hooke’s law and its application; design problems on axial stress, shear stress and bearing stress; material properties for dynamic loading; bending shear and stresses in beams;. determination of principle stresses and strains – analytical and graphical; compound and combined stresses; bi-axial stresses – thin walled pressure vessel; material behaviour and design factors for dynamic load; design of circular shafts for bending and torsional load only; deflection of beam for statically determinate problems; theories of failure.

2. Engineering Materials:

Basic concepts on structure of solids; common ferrous and non-ferrous materials and their applications; heat-treatment of steels; non-metals- plastics, ceramics, composite materials and nano-materials.

3. Theory of Machines:

Kinematic and dynamic analysis of plane mechanisms. Cams, Gears and epicyclic gear trains, flywheels, governors, balancing of rigid rotors, balancing of single and multicylinder engines, linear vibration analysis of mechanical systems (single degree of freedom), Critical speeds and whirling of shafts.

4. Manufacturing Science:

4.1 Manufacturing Process:

Machine tool engineering – Merchant’s force analysis; Taylor’s tool life equation; conventional machining; NC and CNC machining process; jigs and fixtures.

Non-conventional machining – EDM, ECM, ultrasonic, water jet machining etc; application of lasers and plasmas; energy rate calculations.

Forming and welding processes- standard processes.

Metrology – concept of fits and tolerances; tools and gauges; comparators; inspection of length; position; profile and surface finish.

4.2. Manufacturing Management:

System design: factory location- simple OR models; plant layout – methods based; applications of engineering economic analysis and break- even analysis for product selection, process selection and capacity planning; predetermined time standards.

System planning; forecasting methods based on regression and decomposition, design and balancing of multi model and stochastic assembly lines; inventory management – probabilistic inventory models for order time and order quantity determination; JIT systems; strategic sourcing; managing inter plant logistics.

System operations and control: Scheduling algorithms for job shops; applications of statistical methods for product and process quality control – applications of control charts for mean, range, percent defective, number of defectives and defects per unit; quality cost systems; management of resources, organizations and risks in projects. System improvement: Implementation of systems, such as total quality management, developing and managing flexible, lean and agile organizations.

1. Thermodynamics, Gas Dynamics and Turbine:

1.1 Basic concept of First –law and second law of Thermodynamics; concept of entropy and reversibility; availability and unavailability and irreversibility.

1.2 Classification and properties of fluids; incompressible and compressible fluids flows; effect of Mach number and compressibility; continuity momentum and energy equations; normal and oblique shocks; one dimensional isentropic flow; flow or fluids in duct with frictions that transfer.

1.3 Flow through fans, blowers and compressors; axial and centrifugal flow configuration; design of fans and compressors; single problems compresses and turbine cascade; open and closed cycle gas turbines; work done in the gas turbine; reheat and regenerators.

2. Heat Transfer:

2.1 Conduction heat transfer- general conduction equation – Laplace, Poisson and Fourier equations; Fourier law of conduction; one dimensional steady state heat conduction applied to simple wall, solid and hollow cylinder & spheres.

2.2 Convection heat transfer- Newton’s law of convection; free and forces convection; heat transfer during laminar and turbulent flow of an incompressible fluid over a flat plate; concepts of Nusselt number, hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer their thickness; Prandtl number; analogy between heat and momentum transfer- Reynolds, Colbum, Prandtl analogies; heat transfer during laminar and turbulent flow through horizontal tubes; free convection from horizontal and vertical plates.

2.3 Black body radiation – basic radiation laws such as Stefan-Boltzman, Planck distribution, Wein’s displacement etc.

2.4 Basic heat exchanger analysis; classification of heat exchangers.

3. I .C. Engines:

3.1 Classification, thermodynamic cycles of operation; determination of break power, indicated power, mechanical efficiency, heat balance sheet, interpretation of performance characteristics, petrol, gas and diesel engines.

3.2 Combustion in SI and CI engines, normal and abnormal combustion; effect of working parameters on knocking, reduction of knocking; Forms of combustion chamber for SI and CI engines; rating of fuels; additives; emission.

3.3 Different systems of IC engines- fuels; lubricating; cooling and transmission systems. Alternate fuels in IC engines.

4. Steam Engineering:

4.1 Steam generation- modified Rankine cycle analysis; Modern steam boilers; steam at critical and supercritical pressures; draught equipment; natural and artificial draught; boiler fuels solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. Steam turbines – principle; types; compounding; impulse and reaction turbines; axial thrust.

4.2 Steam nozzles- flow of steam in convergent and divergent nozzle; pressure at throat for maximum discharge with different initial steam conditions such as wet, saturated and superheated, effect of variation of back pressure; supersaturated flow of steam in nozzles, Wilson line.

4.3 Rankine cycle with internal and external irreversibility; reheat factor; reheating and regeneration, methods of governing; back pressure and pass out turbines.

4.4 Steam power plants – combined cycle power generation; heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) fired and unfired, co-generation plants.

5. Refrigeration and air-conditioning:

5.1 Vapour compression refrigeration cycle – cycle on p-H & T-s diagrams; eco-friendly refrigerants – R134a,123; Systems like evaporators, condensers, compressor, expansion devices. Simple vapour absorption systems.

5.2 Psychrometry – properties; processes; charts; sensible heating and cooling; humidification and dehumidification effective temperature; air-conditioning load calculation; simple duct design.


Civil Services Mains exam syllabus: Management

Management Syllabus for IAS Main Examination 2014


The candidate should make a study of the concept and development of management as science and art drawing upon the contributions of leading thinkers of management and apply the concepts to the real life of government and business decision making keeping in view the changes in the strategic and operative environment.
I.Managerial Function

Concept and Foundations of Management, Evolution of Management Thoughts;Managerial Functions – Planning, Organizing, Controlling; Decision making; Role of Manager, Managerial skills; Entrepreneurship;Management of innovation ; Managing in a global environment, Flexible Systems Management; Social responsibility and managerial ethics; Process and customer or ientat ion; Managerial processes on direct and indirect value chain.
II.Organisational Behaviour and Design

Conceptual model of organization behaviour; The individual processes – personality, values and attitude, perception, motivation, learning and reinforcement, work stress and stress management; The dynamics of organizat ion behaviour – power and politics, conflict and negotiation, leadership process and styles, communication; The Organizational Processes – decision making, job design; Classical, Neoclassical and Contingency approaches to organizational design; Organizational theory and design – organizational culture, managing cultural diversity, learning organization ; organizational change and development ; Knowledge Based Enterpr ise – systems and processes; Networked and virtual organizations.
III.Human Resource Management

HR challenges; HRM functions; The future challenges of HRM; Strategic Management of human resources; Human resource planning; Job analysis; Job evaluation; Recruitment and selection; Training and development; Promotion and transfer; Performance management; Compensation management and benefits; Employee morale and productivity; Management of organizational climate and Industrial relations; Human resources accounting and audit; Human resource information system; International human resource management
IV.Accounting for Managers

Financial accounting – concept, importance and scope, generally accepted accounting principles, preparation of financial statements with special reference to analysis of a balance sheet and measurement of business income, inventory valuation and depreciation, financial statement analysis, fund flow analysis, the statement of cash flows; Management accounting – concept, need, importance and scope; Cost accounting – records and processes, cost ledger and control accounts, reconciliation and integration between financial and cost accounts; Overhead cost and control, Job and process costing, Budget and budgetary control, Performance budgeting, Zero-base budgeting, relevant costing and costing for decision-making, standard costting and variance analysis, marginal costing and absorption costing
V.Financial Management

Goals of finance function; Concepts of value and return; Valuation of bonds and shares; Management of working capital: Estimation and financing; Management of cash, receivables, inventory and current liabilities; Cost of capital; Capital budgeting; Financial and operating leverage; Design of capital structure: theories and practices; Shareholder value creation: dividend policy, corporate financial policy and strategy, management of corporate distress and restructuring strategy; Capital and money markets: institutions and instruments; Leasing, hire purchase and venture capital; Regulation of capital market; Risk and return: portfolio theory; CAPM; APT; Financial derivatives: option, futures, swap; Recent reforms in financial sector
VI.Marketing Management

Concept, evolution and scope; Marketing strategy formulation and components of marketing plan; Segmenting and targeting the market; Positioning and differentiating the market offering; Analyzing competition; Analyzing consumer markets; Industrial buyer behaviour; Market research; Product strategy; Pricing strategies; Designing and managing Marketing channels; Integrated marketing communications; Building customer satisfaction, Value and retention; Services and non-profit marketing; Ethics in marketing; Consumer protection; Internet marketing; Retail management; Customer relationship management; Concept of holistic marketing.
I.Quantitative Techniques in Decision Making

Descriptive statistics – tabular, graphical and numerical methods, introduction to probability, discrete and continuous probability distributions, inferential statisticssampling distributions, central limit theorem, hypothesis testing for differences between means and proportions, inference about population variances, Chi-square and ANOVA, simple correlation and regression, time series and forecasting, decision theory, index numbers; Linear programmi n g – problem formulation,simplex method and graphical solution, sensitivity analysis.
II.Production and Operations Management

Fundamentals of operations management; Organizing for production; Aggregate production planning, capacity planning, plant design: process planning, plant size and scale of operations, Management of facilities; Line balancing; Equipment replacement and maintenance; Production control; Supply chain management – vendor evaluation and audit; Quality management; Statistical process control, Six Sigma; Flexibility and agility in manufacturing systems; World class manufacturing; Project management concepts, R&D management, Management of service operations; Role and importance of materials management, value analysis, make or buy decision; Inventory control, MRP; Waste management.
III.Management Information System

Conceptual foundations of information systems; Information theory; Information resource management; Types of information systems; Systems development – Overview of systems and design; System development management life-cycle, Designing for online and distributed environments; Implementation and control of project; Trends in information technology; Managing data resources – Organising data; DSS and RDBMS; Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Expert systems, e-Business architecture, e-Governance; Information systems planning, Flexibility in information systems; User involvement; Evaluation of information systems.
IV.Government Business Interface

State participation in business, Interactionbetween Government, Business and different Chambers of Commerce and Industry in India; Government’s policy with regard to Small Scale Industries; Government clearances for establishing a new enterprise; Public Distribution System; Government control over price and distribution; Consumer Protection Act (CPA) and The Role of voluntary organizations in protecting consumers’ rights; New Industrial Policy of the Government: liberalization, deregulation and privatisation; Indian planning system; Government policy concerning development of Backward areas/regions; The Responsibilities of the business as well as the Government to protect the environment; Corporate Governance; Cyber Laws.
V.Strategic Management

Business policy as a field of study; Nature and scope of strategic management, Strategic intent, vision, objectives and policies; Process of strategic planning and implementation; Environmental analysis and internal analysis; SWOT analysis; Tools and techniques for strategic analysis – Impact matrix: The experience curve, BCG matrix, GEC mode, Industry analysis, Concept of value chain; Strategic profile of a firm; Framework for analysing compet i t ion; Competitive advantage of a firm; Generic competitive strategies; Growth strategies – expansion, integration and diversification; Concept of core competence, Strategic flexibility; Reinventing strategy; Strategy and structure; Chief Executive and Board; Turnaround management; Management of strategic change; Strategic alliances, Mergers and Acquisitions; Strategy and corporate evolution in the Indian context.
VI.International Business

International Business Environment : Changing composition of trade in goods and services; India’s Foreign Trade: Policy and trends; Financing of International trade; Regional Economic Cooperation; FTAs; Internationalisation of service firms; International production; Operation Management in International companies; International Taxation; Global competitiveness and technological developments; Global e-Business; Designing global organisational structure and control; Multicultural management; Global business strategy; Global marketing strategies; Export Management; Export- Import procedures; Joint Ventures; Foreign Investment: Foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment; Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions; Foreign Exchange Risk Exposure Management; World Financial Markets and International Banking; External Debt Management; Country Risk Analysis

Civil Services Mains exam syllabus: Law

Law Syllabus for IAS Main Examination 2014


Constitutional and Administrative Law

1. Constitution and Constitutionalism: The distinctive features of the Constitution.

2. Fundamental rights – Public interest litigation; Legal Aid; Legal services authority.

3. Relationship between fundamental rights, directive principles and fundamental duties.

4. Constitutional position of the President and relation with the Council of Ministers.

5. Governor and his powers.

6. Supreme Court and High Courts:

(a) Appointments and transfer.

(b) Powers, functions and jurisdiction.

7. Centre, States and local bodies:

(a) Distribution of legislative powers between the Union and the States.

(b) Local bodies.

(c) Administrative relationship among Union, State and Local Bodies.

(d) Eminent domain – State property – common property – community property.

8. Legislative powers, privileges and immunities.

9. Services under the Union and the States:

(a) Recruitment and conditions of services; Constitutional safeguards; Administrative tribunals.

(b) Union Public Service Commission and State Public Service Commissions – Power and functions

(c) Election Commission – Power and functions.

10. Emergency provisions.

11. Amendment of the Constitution.

12. Principles of natural justice – Emerging trends and judicial approach.

13. Delegated legislation and its constitutionality.

14. Separation of powers and constitutional governance.

15. Judicial review of administrative action.

16. Ombudsman: Lokayukta, Lokpal etc.

International Law

1. Nature and definition of international law.

2. Relationship between international law and municipal law.

3. State recognition and state succession.

4. Law of the sea: Inland waters, territorial sea, contiguous zone, continental shelf, exclusive economic zone, high seas.

5. Individuals: Nationality, statelessness; Human rights and procedures available for their enforcement.

6. Territorial jurisdiction of States, extradition and asylum.

7. Treaties: Formation, application, termination and reservation.

8. United Nations: Its principal organs, powers, functions and reform.

9. Peaceful settlement of disputes – different modes.

10. Lawful recourse to force: aggression, self-defence, intervention.

11. Fundamental principles of international humanitarian law – International conventions and contemporary developments.

12. Legality of the use of nuclear weapons; ban on testing of nuclear weapons; Nuclear – non proliferation treaty, CTBT.

13. International terrorism, state sponsored terrorism, hijacking, international criminal court.

14. New international economic order and monetary law: WTO, TRIPS, GATT, IMF, World Bank. 15. Protection and improvement of the human environment: International efforts.

Law of Crimes

1. General principles of criminal liability: Mens rea and actus reus, mens rea in statutory offences.

2. Kinds of punishment and emerging trends as to abolition of capital punishment.

3. Preparation and criminal attempt.

4. General exceptions.

5. Joint and constructive liability.

6. Abetment.

7. Criminal conspiracy.

8. Offences against the State.

9. Offences against public tranquility.

10. Offences against human body.

11. Offences against property.

12. Offences against women.

13. Defamation.

14. Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.

15. Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955 and subsequent legislative developments.

16. Plea bargaining.

Law of Torts

1. Nature and definition.

2. Liability based upon fault and strict liability; Absolute liability.

3. Vicarious liability including State liability.

4. General defences.

5. Joint tort feasors.

6. Remedies.

7. Negligence.

8. Defamation.

9. Nuisance.

10. Conspiracy.

11. False imprisonment.

12. Malicious prosecution.

13. Consumer Protection Act, 1986.

Law of Contracts and Mercantile Law

1. Nature and formation of contract/E-contract.

2. Factors vitiating free consent.

3. Void, voidable, illegal and unenforceable agreements.

4. Performance and discharge of contracts.

5. Quasi- Contracts.

6. Consequences of breach of contract.

7. Contract of indemnity, guarantee and insurance.

8. Contract of agency.

9. Sale of goods and hire purchase.

10. Formation and dissolution of partnership.

11. Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881.

12. Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996.

13. Standard form contracts.

Contemporary Legal Developments

1. Public Interest Litigation.

2. Intellectual property rights – Concept, types/prospects.

3. Information Technology Law including Cyber Laws – Concept, purpose/prospects.

4. Competition Law- Concept, purpose/ prospects.

5. Alternate Dispute Resolution – Concept, types/prospects.

6. Major statutes concerning environmental law.

7. Right to Information Act.

8. Trial by media.

Civil Services Mains exam syllabus: History

History Syllabus for IAS Main Examination 2014


1. Sources:
Archaeological sources: Exploration, excavation, epigraphy numismatics, monuments.
Literary sources:
Indigenous: Primary and secondary ; poetry, scientific literature, literature , literature in regional languages, religious literature.
Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

2. Pre-history and Proto-history: Geographical factors ; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic) ; Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).

3. Indus Valley Civilization: Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

4. Megalithic Cultures: Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

5.Aryans and Vedic Period: Expansions of Aryans in India.
Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

6. Period of Mahajanapadas:
Formation of States (Mahajanapada) :
Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas.
Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.

7. Mauryan Empire:
Foundation of the Mauryan Empire , Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature. Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.

8. Post – Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):
Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:
Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration , economy, land grants, coinage, t rade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:
Polity and administration , Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women , Education and educational inst i tut ions; Nalanda, Vikramshi la and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

11. Regional States during Gupta Era:
The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government ; Growth of ar t and archi tecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.

12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History: Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200: – Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs
– The Cholas: administration, village economy and society
– “Indian Feudalism”
– Agrarian economy and urban settlements
– Trade and commerce
– Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order
– Condition of women
– Indian science and technology

14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:
– Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa
– Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism
– Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India
– Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting

15. The Thirteenth Century:
– Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success
– Economic, social and cultural consequences
– Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans.
– Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban.

16. The Fourteenth Century:
– “The Khalji Revolution”
– Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures
– Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrar ian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq.
– Fi ruz Tughluq: Agrar ian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account.

17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:
– Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement.
– Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture.
– Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce.

18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy:
– Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir(Zainul Abedin), Gujarat , Malwa, Bahmanids.
– The Vijayanagra Empire.
– Lodis.
– Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun.
– The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration.
– Portuguese Colonial enterprise.
– Bhakti and Sufi Movements.

19. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture:
– Regional cultural specificities.
– Literary traditions.
– Provincial architecture.
– Society, culture, literature and the arts. in Vijayanagara Empire.

– Conquests and consolidation of the Empire.
– Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems.
– Rajput policy.
– Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy.
– Court patronage of art and technology.

21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
– Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.
– The Empire and the Zamindars.
– Religious policies of Jahangir , Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.
– Nature of the Mughal State.
– Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts.
– The Ahom Kingdom.
– Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

22. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries:
– Population, agricultural production, craft production.
– Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution.
– Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems.
– Condi t ion of peasants, condi t ion of women.
– Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth.

23. Culture in the Mughal Empire:
– Persian histories and other literature.
– Hindi and other religious literature.
– Mughal architecture.
– Mughal painting.
– Provincial architecture and painting.
– Classical music.
– Science and technology.

24. The Eighteenth Century:
– Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire.
– The regional pr incipal i t ies: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh.
– Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas.
– The Maratha fiscal and financial system.
– Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat:1761.
– State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest.


1. European Penetration into India:
The Ear ly European Set t lements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal -The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.

2. British Expansion in India: Bengal – Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.

3. Early Structure of the British Raj: The early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice of free trade and the changing character of Br i t ish colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.

4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:
(a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement ; Mahalwari Settlement ; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements ; Commercialization of agriculture ; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.
(b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic Transformation of india ; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.

5. Social and Cultural Developments:
The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist Controversy, the Introduction of western educat ion in India; The r ise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India.

6 . Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas:
Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Is War Chandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow Remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism – the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.

7. Indian Response to British Rule:
Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebel l ion (1859-60) , Deccan Upr ising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899- 1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 – Origin, Character, Causes of failure the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant upr isings in the post -1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

8. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism: Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; The Moderates and Extremists; the Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.

9. Rise of Gandhi, Character of Gandhian nationalism: Gandhi ’s popular appeal ; Rowlatt Satyagraha ; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-co operation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement ; Simon Commission ; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.

10. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935.

11. Other strands in the National Movement The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, the Madras Presidency, Outside India. The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party ; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.

12. Politics of Separatism the Muslim League: the Hindu Mahasabha ; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.

13. Consolidation as a Nation: Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.

14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947: Backward castes and tribes in post – colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.

15. Economic development and political change: Land reforms ; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post – colonial India; Progress of science.

16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas:
(i) Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau.
(ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies. (iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.

17. Origins of Modern Politics:
(i) European States System.
(ii) American Revolution and the Constitution.
(iii) French revolution and aftermath, 1789-1815.
(iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.
(v) Br i t ish Democrat ic Politics, 1815 – 1850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.
18. Industrialization:
(i) English Industrial Revolution : Causes and Impact on Society
(ii) Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan
(iii) Industrialization and Globalization.

19. Nation-State System:
(i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century
(ii) Nationalism: state-building in Germany and Italy
(iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the world.

20. Imperialism and Colonialism:
(i) South and South-East Asia
(ii) Latin America and South Africa
(iii) Australia
(iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.

21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution:
(i) 19th Century European revolutions
(ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917- 1921
(iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.
(iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949

22. World Wars:
(i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications
(ii) World War I: Causes and consequences
(iii) World War II: Causes and consequence

23. The World after World War II:
(i) Emergence of two power blocs
(ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment
(iii) UNO and the global disputes.

24. Liberation from Colonial Rule:
(i) Latin America-Bolivar
(ii) Arab World-Egypt
(iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy
(iv) South-East Asia-Vietnam

25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment:
(i) Factors const raining development: Latin America, Africa

26. Unification of Europe:
(i) Post War Foundations: NATO and European Community
(ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community
(iii) European Union.

27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World:
(i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet communism and the Soviet Union, 1985-1991
(ii) Political Changes in Eastern Europe 1989-2001.
(iii) End of the cold war and US ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.