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Civil Services Mains exam syllabus: Law

Law Syllabus for IAS Main Examination 2014


Constitutional and Administrative Law

1. Constitution and Constitutionalism: The distinctive features of the Constitution.

2. Fundamental rights – Public interest litigation; Legal Aid; Legal services authority.

3. Relationship between fundamental rights, directive principles and fundamental duties.

4. Constitutional position of the President and relation with the Council of Ministers.

5. Governor and his powers.

6. Supreme Court and High Courts:

(a) Appointments and transfer.

(b) Powers, functions and jurisdiction.

7. Centre, States and local bodies:

(a) Distribution of legislative powers between the Union and the States.

(b) Local bodies.

(c) Administrative relationship among Union, State and Local Bodies.

(d) Eminent domain – State property – common property – community property.

8. Legislative powers, privileges and immunities.

9. Services under the Union and the States:

(a) Recruitment and conditions of services; Constitutional safeguards; Administrative tribunals.

(b) Union Public Service Commission and State Public Service Commissions – Power and functions

(c) Election Commission – Power and functions.

10. Emergency provisions.

11. Amendment of the Constitution.

12. Principles of natural justice – Emerging trends and judicial approach.

13. Delegated legislation and its constitutionality.

14. Separation of powers and constitutional governance.

15. Judicial review of administrative action.

16. Ombudsman: Lokayukta, Lokpal etc.

International Law

1. Nature and definition of international law.

2. Relationship between international law and municipal law.

3. State recognition and state succession.

4. Law of the sea: Inland waters, territorial sea, contiguous zone, continental shelf, exclusive economic zone, high seas.

5. Individuals: Nationality, statelessness; Human rights and procedures available for their enforcement.

6. Territorial jurisdiction of States, extradition and asylum.

7. Treaties: Formation, application, termination and reservation.

8. United Nations: Its principal organs, powers, functions and reform.

9. Peaceful settlement of disputes – different modes.

10. Lawful recourse to force: aggression, self-defence, intervention.

11. Fundamental principles of international humanitarian law – International conventions and contemporary developments.

12. Legality of the use of nuclear weapons; ban on testing of nuclear weapons; Nuclear – non proliferation treaty, CTBT.

13. International terrorism, state sponsored terrorism, hijacking, international criminal court.

14. New international economic order and monetary law: WTO, TRIPS, GATT, IMF, World Bank. 15. Protection and improvement of the human environment: International efforts.

Law of Crimes

1. General principles of criminal liability: Mens rea and actus reus, mens rea in statutory offences.

2. Kinds of punishment and emerging trends as to abolition of capital punishment.

3. Preparation and criminal attempt.

4. General exceptions.

5. Joint and constructive liability.

6. Abetment.

7. Criminal conspiracy.

8. Offences against the State.

9. Offences against public tranquility.

10. Offences against human body.

11. Offences against property.

12. Offences against women.

13. Defamation.

14. Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.

15. Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955 and subsequent legislative developments.

16. Plea bargaining.

Law of Torts

1. Nature and definition.

2. Liability based upon fault and strict liability; Absolute liability.

3. Vicarious liability including State liability.

4. General defences.

5. Joint tort feasors.

6. Remedies.

7. Negligence.

8. Defamation.

9. Nuisance.

10. Conspiracy.

11. False imprisonment.

12. Malicious prosecution.

13. Consumer Protection Act, 1986.

Law of Contracts and Mercantile Law

1. Nature and formation of contract/E-contract.

2. Factors vitiating free consent.

3. Void, voidable, illegal and unenforceable agreements.

4. Performance and discharge of contracts.

5. Quasi- Contracts.

6. Consequences of breach of contract.

7. Contract of indemnity, guarantee and insurance.

8. Contract of agency.

9. Sale of goods and hire purchase.

10. Formation and dissolution of partnership.

11. Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881.

12. Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996.

13. Standard form contracts.

Contemporary Legal Developments

1. Public Interest Litigation.

2. Intellectual property rights – Concept, types/prospects.

3. Information Technology Law including Cyber Laws – Concept, purpose/prospects.

4. Competition Law- Concept, purpose/ prospects.

5. Alternate Dispute Resolution – Concept, types/prospects.

6. Major statutes concerning environmental law.

7. Right to Information Act.

8. Trial by media.

Civil Services Mains exam syllabus: History

History Syllabus for IAS Main Examination 2014


1. Sources:
Archaeological sources: Exploration, excavation, epigraphy numismatics, monuments.
Literary sources:
Indigenous: Primary and secondary ; poetry, scientific literature, literature , literature in regional languages, religious literature.
Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

2. Pre-history and Proto-history: Geographical factors ; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic) ; Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).

3. Indus Valley Civilization: Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

4. Megalithic Cultures: Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

5.Aryans and Vedic Period: Expansions of Aryans in India.
Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

6. Period of Mahajanapadas:
Formation of States (Mahajanapada) :
Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas.
Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.

7. Mauryan Empire:
Foundation of the Mauryan Empire , Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature. Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.

8. Post – Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):
Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:
Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration , economy, land grants, coinage, t rade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:
Polity and administration , Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women , Education and educational inst i tut ions; Nalanda, Vikramshi la and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

11. Regional States during Gupta Era:
The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government ; Growth of ar t and archi tecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.

12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History: Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200: – Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs
– The Cholas: administration, village economy and society
– “Indian Feudalism”
– Agrarian economy and urban settlements
– Trade and commerce
– Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order
– Condition of women
– Indian science and technology

14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:
– Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa
– Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism
– Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India
– Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting

15. The Thirteenth Century:
– Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success
– Economic, social and cultural consequences
– Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans.
– Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban.

16. The Fourteenth Century:
– “The Khalji Revolution”
– Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures
– Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrar ian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq.
– Fi ruz Tughluq: Agrar ian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account.

17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:
– Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement.
– Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture.
– Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce.

18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy:
– Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir(Zainul Abedin), Gujarat , Malwa, Bahmanids.
– The Vijayanagra Empire.
– Lodis.
– Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun.
– The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration.
– Portuguese Colonial enterprise.
– Bhakti and Sufi Movements.

19. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture:
– Regional cultural specificities.
– Literary traditions.
– Provincial architecture.
– Society, culture, literature and the arts. in Vijayanagara Empire.

– Conquests and consolidation of the Empire.
– Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems.
– Rajput policy.
– Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy.
– Court patronage of art and technology.

21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
– Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.
– The Empire and the Zamindars.
– Religious policies of Jahangir , Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.
– Nature of the Mughal State.
– Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts.
– The Ahom Kingdom.
– Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

22. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries:
– Population, agricultural production, craft production.
– Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution.
– Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems.
– Condi t ion of peasants, condi t ion of women.
– Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth.

23. Culture in the Mughal Empire:
– Persian histories and other literature.
– Hindi and other religious literature.
– Mughal architecture.
– Mughal painting.
– Provincial architecture and painting.
– Classical music.
– Science and technology.

24. The Eighteenth Century:
– Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire.
– The regional pr incipal i t ies: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh.
– Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas.
– The Maratha fiscal and financial system.
– Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat:1761.
– State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest.


1. European Penetration into India:
The Ear ly European Set t lements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal -The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.

2. British Expansion in India: Bengal – Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.

3. Early Structure of the British Raj: The early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice of free trade and the changing character of Br i t ish colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.

4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:
(a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement ; Mahalwari Settlement ; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements ; Commercialization of agriculture ; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.
(b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic Transformation of india ; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.

5. Social and Cultural Developments:
The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist Controversy, the Introduction of western educat ion in India; The r ise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India.

6 . Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas:
Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Is War Chandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow Remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism – the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.

7. Indian Response to British Rule:
Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebel l ion (1859-60) , Deccan Upr ising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899- 1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 – Origin, Character, Causes of failure the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant upr isings in the post -1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

8. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism: Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; The Moderates and Extremists; the Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.

9. Rise of Gandhi, Character of Gandhian nationalism: Gandhi ’s popular appeal ; Rowlatt Satyagraha ; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-co operation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement ; Simon Commission ; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.

10. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935.

11. Other strands in the National Movement The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, the Madras Presidency, Outside India. The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party ; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.

12. Politics of Separatism the Muslim League: the Hindu Mahasabha ; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.

13. Consolidation as a Nation: Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.

14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947: Backward castes and tribes in post – colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.

15. Economic development and political change: Land reforms ; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post – colonial India; Progress of science.

16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas:
(i) Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau.
(ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies. (iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.

17. Origins of Modern Politics:
(i) European States System.
(ii) American Revolution and the Constitution.
(iii) French revolution and aftermath, 1789-1815.
(iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.
(v) Br i t ish Democrat ic Politics, 1815 – 1850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.
18. Industrialization:
(i) English Industrial Revolution : Causes and Impact on Society
(ii) Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan
(iii) Industrialization and Globalization.

19. Nation-State System:
(i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century
(ii) Nationalism: state-building in Germany and Italy
(iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the world.

20. Imperialism and Colonialism:
(i) South and South-East Asia
(ii) Latin America and South Africa
(iii) Australia
(iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.

21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution:
(i) 19th Century European revolutions
(ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917- 1921
(iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.
(iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949

22. World Wars:
(i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications
(ii) World War I: Causes and consequences
(iii) World War II: Causes and consequence

23. The World after World War II:
(i) Emergence of two power blocs
(ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment
(iii) UNO and the global disputes.

24. Liberation from Colonial Rule:
(i) Latin America-Bolivar
(ii) Arab World-Egypt
(iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy
(iv) South-East Asia-Vietnam

25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment:
(i) Factors const raining development: Latin America, Africa

26. Unification of Europe:
(i) Post War Foundations: NATO and European Community
(ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community
(iii) European Union.

27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World:
(i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet communism and the Soviet Union, 1985-1991
(ii) Political Changes in Eastern Europe 1989-2001.
(iii) End of the cold war and US ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.

Civil Services Mains exam syllabus: Geology

Geology Syllabus for IAS Main Examination 2014


1. General Geology:

The Solar System, Meteorites, Origin and interior of the earth and age of earth; Volcanoes- causes and products, Volcanic belts ; Earth quakes – causes ,effects , Seismic zones of India ; Island arcs , trenches and mid – ocean ridges; Continental drifts; Seafloor spreading, Plate tectonics; Isostasy

2. Geomorphology and Remote Sensing:

Basic concepts of geomorphology; Weathering and soil formations; Landforms, slopes and drainage; Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation; Morphology and its relation to structures and lithology; Coastal geomorphology; Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil engineering; Hydrology and environmental studies; Geomorphology of Indian subcontinent.

Aerial photographs and their interpretation-merits and limitations; The Electromagnetic spectrum; Orbiting satellites and sensor systems; Indian Remote Sensing Satellites; Satellites data products; Applications of remote sensing in geology; The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) – its applications.

3. Structural Geology:

Principles of geologic mapping and map reading, Projection diagrams, Stress and strain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials; Strain markers in deformed rocks; Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions; Folds and faults classification and mechanics; Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities; Time-relationship between crystallization and deformation.

4. Paleontology:

Species- definition and nomenclature; Megafossils and Microfossils; Modes of preservation of fossils; Different kinds of microfossils; Application of microfossils in correlation, petroleum exploration, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies; Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Proboscidae; Siwalik fauna; Gondwana flora and fauna and its importance; Index fossils and their significance.

5. Indian Stratigraphy:

Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, chro-nostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships; Distribution and classification of Precambrian rocks of India; Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance; Major boundary problems- Cambrian/Precambrian, Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene/Pleistocene; Study of climatic conditions, paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian subcontinent in the geological past; Tectonic framework of India; Evolution of the Himalayas.

6. Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology:

Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water; Movement of subsurface water; Springs; Porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient, classification of aquifers; Water-bearing characteristics of rocks; Groundwater chemistry; Salt water intrusion; Types of wells; Drainage basin morphometry; Exploration for groundwater; Groundwater recharge; Problems and management of groundwater; Rainwater harvesting; Engineering properties of rocks; Geological investigations for dams, tunnels highways, railway and bridges; Rock as construction material; Landslides-causes, prevention and rehabilitation; Earthquake-resistant structures.


1. Mineralogy:

Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry; International system of crystallographic notation; Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry; Elements of X-ray crystallography.

Physical and chemical characters of rock forming silicate mineral groups; Structural classification of silicates; Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks; Minerals of the carbonate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups; Clay minerals.

Optical properties of common rock forming minerals; Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals.

2. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology:

Generation and crystallization of magmas; Crystallization of albite-anorthite, diopside-anorthite and diopside-wollastonite-silica systems; Bowen’s Reaction Principle; Magmatic differentation and assimilation; Petrogenetic significance of the textures and structures of igneous rocks; Petrography and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks; Carbonatites; Deccan volcanic province.

Types and agents of metamorphism; Metamorphic grades and zones; Phase rule; Facies of regional and contact metamorphism; ACF and AKF diagrams; Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks; Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks; Minerals assemblages Retrograde metamorphism; Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatites, Granulite terrains of India.

3. Sedimentary Petrology:

Sediments and Sedimentary rocks: Processes of formation; digenesis and lithification; Clastic and non-clastic rocks-their classification, petrography and depositional environment; Sedimentary facies and provenance; Sedimentary structures and their significance; Heavy minerals and their significance; Sedimentary basins of India.

4. Economic Geology:

Ore, ore minerals and gangue, tenor of ore, classification of ore deposits; Process of formation of minerals deposits; Controls of ore localization; Ore textures and structures; Metallogenic epochs and provinces; Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial minerals; Deposits of coal and petroleum in India; National Mineral Policy; Conservation and utilization of mineral resources; Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.

5. Mining Geology:

Methods of prospecting-geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical; Techniques of sampling; Estimation of reserves or ore; Methods of exploration and mining metallic ores, industrial minerals, marine mineral resources and building stones; Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.

6. Geochemistry and Environmental Geology:

Cosmic abundance of elements; Composition of the planets and meteorites; Structure and composition of Earth and distribution of elements; Trace elements; Elements of crystal chemistry-types of chemical bonds, coordination number; Isomorphism and polymorphism; Elementary thermodynamics.

Natural hazards-floods, mass wasting, costal hazards, earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation; Environmental impact of urbanization, mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste and fly ash; Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution; Environment protection – legislative measures in India; Sea level changes: causes and impact.

Civil Services Mains exam syllabus: Geography

Geography Syllabus for IAS Main Examination 2014


Principles of Geography

Physical Geography

i) Geomorphology : Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development ; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development ;Appl ied Geomorphology: Geohydrology, economic geology and environment

ii) Climatology : Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climates; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes, Applied climatology and Urban climate.

iii) Oceanography : Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral bleaching; sealevel changes; law of the sea and marine pollution.

iv) Biogeography : : Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry; agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.

v) Environmental Geography : Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment ; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradat ion, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.
Human Geography

i) Perspectives in Human Geography : Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quant i tat ive revolut ion and locat ional analysis; radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index.

ii) Economic Geography : : World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: locational patterns and problems; patterns of world trade.
iii) Population and Settlement Geography : Growth and distribution of world population; demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; concepts of over – under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural – urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.
iv) Regional Planning : Concept of a region; types of regions and methods of regionalisation; growth centres and growth poles; regional imbalances; environmental issues in regional planning; planning for sustainable development.
v) Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography : System analysis in Human Geography; Malthusian, Marxian and Demographic Transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Rostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and Rimland theories; laws of international boundaries and frontiers.
Note : Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.

Paper II

Geography Of India

1. Physical Setting:
Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns, Tropical cyclones and western distur – bances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation; Soil types and their distributions.

2. Resources:
Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources; Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.

3. Agriculture:
Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors: land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and socialforestry; Green revolution and its socioeconomic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; aqua – culture; sericulture, apiculture and poultry; agr icul tural regional isat ion; agro-cl imat ic zones; agro- ecological regions.

4 . Industry :
Evolution of industries ; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and agro-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policies; Multinationals and liberalization; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including eco -tourism.

5. Transport, Communication and Trade:
Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.

6. Cultural Setting:
Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.

7. Settlements:
Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional cla ssification of Indian cities ; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; town planning; Problems of urbanization and remedies.

8. Regional Development and Planning:
Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area ,desert , drought prone, hill, tribal area development; multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.

9. Political Aspects:
Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter state issues; international boundary of India and related issues; Cross border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.

10. Contemporary Issues:
Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides earth quakes , Tsunamis , floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development ; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.

NOTE: Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper

Civil Services Mains exam syllabus: Electrical Engineering

Electrical Engineering Syllabus for IAS Main Examination 2014


1. Circuit Theory:

Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; circuit analysis methods: nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis: RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits; coupled circuits; balanced 3-phase circuits; Two-port networks.

2. Signals & Systems:

Representation of continuous–time and discrete-time signals & systems; LTI systems; convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, FFT Processing of analog signals through discrete-time systems.

3. E.M. Theory:

Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and refraction of plane waves. Transmission line: travelling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith chart.

4. Analog Electronics:

Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits: clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror; Amplifiers: single and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency-response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters; sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Linear and switching power supplies.

5. Digital Electronics:

Boolean algebra; minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA).

6. Energy Conversion:

Principles of electromechanical energy conversion: Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC machines: characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors; Transformers: principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers. 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines: characteristics and preformance analysis; speed control.

7. Power Electronics and Electric Drives:

Semiconductor power devices: diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET–static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters: fully-controlled and half-controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; DC-DC converters; Switch mode inverter; basic concepts of speed control of dc and ac motor drives applications of variable-speed drives.

8. Analog Communication:

Random variables: continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions. Statistical averages; probability models; Random signals and noise: white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; signal transmission with noise; signal to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation: Amplitude modulation: DSB, DSB-SC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation: PM & FM signals; narrowband FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, Deemphasis, Preemphasis. CW modulation system: Superhetrodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, phase locked loop, SSB receiver Signal to noise ratio calculation for AM and FM receivers.


1. Control Systems:

Elements of control systems; block-diagram representation; open-loop & closed-loop systems; principles and applications of feed-back. Control system components. LTI systems: time-domain and transform-domain analysis. Stability: Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Bode-plots and polar plots, Nyquist’s criterion; Design of lead-lad compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers. State-variable representation and analysis of control systems.

2. Microprocessors and Microcomputers:

PC organisation; CPU, instruction set, register set, timing diagram, programming, interrupts, memory interfacing, I/O interfacing, programmable peripheral devices.

3. Measurement and Instrumentation:

Error analysis; measurement of current, voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurement. Signal conditioning circuit; Electronic measuring instruments: multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyzer, distortion-meter. Transducers: thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-gauge, piezo-electric crystal.

4. Power Systems: Analysis and Control:

Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices; load flow; voltage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components, analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concept of system stability: swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC transmission.

5. Power System Protection:

Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of solid state relays. Circuit breakers. Computer aided protection: Introduction; line bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric relays and application of DSP to protection.

6. Digital Communication:

Pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM), Digital modulation and demodulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Error control coding: error detection and correction, linear block codes, convolution codes. Information measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture.